All records in Endatabas are immutable. Historical data is not lost when an UPDATE or DELETE statement is executed. You can think of endb as one giant log of transactions with fast queries made possible by adaptive indexing.


The only time data in Endatabas is truly deleted is with the ERASE statement. This is used for user safety and compliance with laws like GDPR.

Dynamic SQL

Both the heart and "UI" of Endatabas is a dynamic SQL engine which natively understands strongly-typed, semi-structured rows (documents). Here is an example to illustrate what that means:

INSERT INTO stores {brand: "Alonzo's Analog Synthesizers",
                    addresses: [{city: "New Jersey",
                                 country: "United States",
                                 opened: 1929-09-01},
                                {city: "Göttingen",
                                 country: "Germany",
                                 opened: 1928-09-01}]};

-- recursive query of ISO dates from the nested document:
SELECT addresses..opened FROM stores;

Endb SQL bases its core SQL dialect on SQLite. It also draws inspiration from SQL:99, SQL:2011, SQL:2016, and SQL:2023. Read more in our bibliography.

Columnar: Hybrid Transactional Analytic Processing (HTAP)

Endatabas stores and processes data as columns. Endb's columnar storage is built on Apache Arrow. Endb SQL allows users to retrieve data as documents. The ultimate goal is for Endatabas to serve many (hybrid) purposes: day-to-day transactions and analytical jobs.

Query Execution

Queries are compiled to Common Lisp and use hash joins. Join ordering is done heuristically, by base table size. Correlated queries are memoized by building indexes in-memory during query execution.


More detailed information about the future of Endb can be found in the roadmap.

Cloud: Separation of Storage from Compute

If you're not sure what this is, think Amazon Aurora, Google AlloyDB, and Neon. Compute nodes are the classic database (Postgres, MongoDB, etc.) — in an immutable world, these are just caches. Storage is elastic object or blob storage (S3, Azure Blobs, etc.).

Endatabas is built to live in the clouds, alongside infinite disk.

Although the groundwork for separating storage from compute exists in Endb today, elastic storage backends are not yet implemented.

Adaptive Indexing

For more information on light and adaptive indexing, you can watch Håkan's talk from 2022: "Light and Adaptive Indexing for Immutable Databases"

Endb does not yet support adaptive indexing.